# 17 Flow Triggers

1. Intensely Focused Attention
2. Clear Goals
3. Immediate Feedback
4. The Challange/Skills Ratio
5. High Consequences
6. Rich Environment
7. Deep Embodiment
8. Serious Concentration
9. Shared, Clear Goals
10. Good Communication
11. Familiarity
12. Equal Participation (and Skill Level)
13. Risk
14. Sense Of Control
15. Close Listening
16. Always Say Yes
17. Creativity

List of 17 Flow Triggers by Steven Kotler http://www.slideshare.net/StevenKotler/17-flow-triggers

# Steve Sasson

Anytime you’re inventing anything you look at your invention, but realize that the rest of the world is inventing along with you. – Steve Sasson

# What is a Tuple

A tuple is a finite ordered list of elements. In mathematics, an n-tuple is a sequence (or ordered list) of n elements, where n is a non-negative integer.

Tuple Length n Name Alternative names
0 empty tuple unit / empty sequence
1 single singleton / monuple
2 double couple / (ordered) pair /
dual / twin / product
3 triple treble / triplet / triad
5 quintuple pentuple
6 sextuple hexuple
7 septuple heptuple
8 octuple
9 nonuple
10 decuple
11 undecuple hendecuple
12 duodecuple
13 tredecuple
14 quattuordecuple
15 quindecuple
16 sexdecuple
17 septendecuple
18 octodecuple
19 novemdecuple
20 vigintuple
21 unvigintuple
22 duovigintuple
23 trevigintuple
24 quattuorvigintuple
25 quinvigintuple
26 sexvigintuple
27 septenvigintuple
28 octovigintuple
29 novemvigintuple
30 trigintuple
50 quinquagintuple
60 sexagintuple
70 septuagintuple
80 octogintuple
90 nongentuple
100 centuple
1,000 milluple

# Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World Annotated

by Peter H. Diamandis  & Steven Kotler

## Notes section annotated

### Introduction: Birth of the Exponential Entrepreneur

1. Mary Bagley, “Cretaceous Period: Facts About Animals, Plants & Climate,” http://www.livescience.com/29231-cretaceous-period.html.
2. Paul R. Renne et al., “Time Scales of Critical Events Around
the Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary,” http://sciences.blogs.liberation.fr/files/chixculub-asteroide-extinction-kt.pdf.
3.  Charlie White, “Smartphones leave yesterday’s supercomputers in the dust,” September 13, 2013, http://www.charliewhite.net/2013/09/smartphones-vs-supercomputers/.
4. Ray Kurzweil, “The Law of Accelerating Returns,” Kurzweil Accelerating Intelligence, March 7, 2001, http://www.kurzweilai.net/the-law-of-accelerating-returns.
– Couldn’t get to http://time.com/money/ because of a redirect loop

### Chapter One: Good-bye Linear Thinking . . . Hello, Exponential

1. Elizabeth Brayer, George Eastman: A Biography (Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996), 24-27. Or see http://www.kodak.com/ek/US/en/Our_Company/History_of_Kodak/George_Eastman.htm.  URL Change: http://graphics.kodak.com/US/en/corp/aboutus/heritage/georgeeastman/default.htm
2. See http://www.kodak.com/ek/US/en/Our_Company/History_of_Kodak/George_Eastman.htm. URL Change: http://graphics.kodak.com/US/en/corp/aboutus/heritage/georgeeastman/default.htm
3. Ibid.
4. See “Kodak Moments: Steve Sasson, Digital Camera Inventor,” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wfnpVRiiwnM.
5. John Pavlus, “How Steve Sasson Invented The Digital Camera,” Fast Company, April 12, 2011, http://www.fastcodesign.com/1663611/how-steve-sasson-invented-the-digital-camera-video.
6. Steve Sasson, “Disruptive Innovation: The Story of the First Digital Camera,” Linda Hall Library Lectures, October 26, 2011, https://vimeo.com/31404047.
7. Andrew Martin, “Negative Exposure for Kodak,” New York Times, October 20, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/21/business/kodaks-bet-on-its-printers-fails-to-quell-the-doubters.html?_r=0.
8. Pavlus, “How Steve Sasson Invented the Digital Camera.” http://www.fastcodesign.com/1663611/how-steve-sasson-invented-the-digital-camera-video
9. Gordon E. Moore, “Cramming more components onto integrated circuits,” Electronics, April 19, 1965, 4. https://www.cs.utexas.edu/~fussell/courses/cs352h/papers/moore.pdf
10. Ray Kurzweil, “The Law of Accelerating Returns.” http://www.kurzweilai.net/the-law-of-accelerating-returns.
11. Michael J. de la Merced, “Eastman Kodak Files for Bankruptcy,” New York Times, January 19, 2012, http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2012/01/19/eastman-kodak-files-for-bankruptcy/.
12. Chris Anderson, Free: How Today’s Smartest Businesses Profit by Giving Something for Nothing (New York: Hypcrion, 2010), 2—3.
13. Elizabeth Palmero, “Google Invests Billions on Satellites to Expand Internet Access,” Scientific American, June 5, 2014. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/google-invests-billions-on-satellites-to-expand-internet-access/
14. Richard Foster and Sarah Kaplan, “Creative Destruction: Why Companies That Are Built to Last Underperform the Market–And How to Successfully Transform Them,” (New York: Crown Business, 2001), 8.
16. Foster and Kaplan, Creative Destruction.
17. Salim Ismail, AI, 2012.
18. Virginia Heffernan, “How We All Learned co Speak Instagram,” Wired, April 2013, http://www.wired.com/2013/04/instagram-2/.
21. Unless otherwise noted, all Ben Kauffman information comes from a series of AIs conducted in 2013.
22. lssk Lapowsky. “Quirky Lands \$79 Million in Funding,” Inc., November 13, 2013, http://www.inc.com/issie-lapowsky/quirky-79-million-funding-connected-home.html.
23. AI conducted 2013.
24. Austin Carr, “Inside Airbnb’s Grand Hotel Plans,” Fast Company. April 2014. http://www.fastcompany.com/3027107/punk-meet-rock-airbnb-brian-chesky-chip-conley
25. Serena Saitto and Brad Stone, “Uber Sets Valuation Record of \$17 Billion in New Funding,” Bloomberg.com, January 7, 2014. See http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-06-06/uber-sets-valuation-record-of-17-billion-in-new-funding.  Corrected date: June 7, 2014

### Chapter Two: Exponential Technology: The Democratization of the Power to Change the World

1. Edwin A. Locke. The Prime Movers (New York: AMACOM, 2000).
2. AI conducted 2013.
3. Steven Kotler, “The Whole Earth Effect,” Plenty, no. 24 (October/November 2008): 84—91. http://www.mnn.com/lifestyle/arts-culture/stories/the-whole-earth-catalog-effect
4. J. C. R Licklider, “Memorandum For Members and Affiliates of the Intergalactic Computer Network,” Advanced Research Projects Agency, April 23. 1963. See http://www.kurzweilai.net/memorandum-for-members-and-affiliates-of-the-intergalactic-computer-network. Corrected name: J. C. R. Licklider
5. Chris Anderson, “The Man Who Makes the Future: Wired Icon Marc Andreessen,” Wired, April 24, 2012, http://www.wired.com/2012/04/ff_andreessen/.
6. Ian Peter, “History of the World Wide Web,” Net History, http://nethistory.info/History%20of%20the%20Internet/index.html.
7. McKinsey Global Institute, “Manufacturing the future: The next era of global growth and innovation,” McKinsey & Company, November 2012, http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/manufacturing/the_future_of_manufacturing.
8. Institute of Human Origins, “Earliest Stone Tool Evidence Revealed,” Becoming Human, August 11, 2010, http://www.becominghuman.org/node/news/earliest-stone-tool-evidence-revealed.
9. Pagan Kennedy, “Who Made That 3-D Printer,” New York Times Magazine, November 22, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/24/magazine/who-made-that-3-d-printer.html.
10. In full disclosure, Peter Diamandis is a member of the 3D Systems Board of Directors.
11. All Avi Reichenthal quotes come from a series of AIs conducted between 2012 and 2014.
12. Based on approximate average share price for 2014.
13. AI, June 2014.
14. AI with Jay Rogers, 2014.
15. David Szondy, “SpaceX completes qualification test of 3D-printed Super-Draco thruster,” Gizmag, May 28, 2014, http://www.gizmag.com/superdraco-test/32292/.
16. James Hagerty and Kate Linebaugh, “Next 3-D Frontier: Printed Plane Parts,” Wall Street Journal, July 14, 2012, http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702303933404577505080296858896.
17. Tim Catts, “GE Turns to 3D Printers for Plane Parts,” Bloomberg Business-week, November 27, 2013, http://www.bloomberg.com/bw/articles/2013-11-27/general-electric-turns-to-3d-printers-for-plane-parts.
18. All quotes about Made In Space come from an AI with Michael Chen conducted 2013.
19. Brian Dodson, “Launch your own satellite for US\$8000,” Gizmag, April 22, 2012, http://www.gizmag.com/tubesat-personal-satellite/22211/.
20. Statista, “Statistics and Facts on the Toy Industry,” Sratista.com, 2012, http://www.statista.com/topics/1108/toy-industry/.
21. Unless otherwise noted, all Alice Taylor quotes and facts come from an AI conducted in 2013.
22. Cory Doctorow, Makers (New York: Tor Books, 2009).

### Chapter Three: Five to Change the World

2. Peter Kelly-Detwiler, “Machine To Machine Connections – The Internet Of Things – And Energy,” Forbes, August 6. 2013, http://www.forbes.com/sites/peterdetwiler/2013/08/06/machine-to-machine-connections-the-internet-of-things-and-energy/.
3. See http://www.shotspotter.com/.
4. Clive Thompson. “No Longer Vaporware: The Internet of Things Is Finally Talking,” Wired, December 6, 2012, http://www.wired.com/2012/12/20-12-st_thompson/.
6. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passenger_vehicles_in_the_United_States.
7. Commercial satellite players include: Planet Labs (already launched) https://www.planet.com/, Skybox Imaging (launched and acquired by Google) http://www.skyboximaging.com/, Urthecast (launched) https://www.urthecast.com/, and two still
confidential companies still under development (about which Peter Diamandis has firsthand knowledge).
9. Rickie Fleming, “The battIe of the G networks,” NCDS.com blog, June 28, 2014, http://www.ncds.com/ncds-business-technology-blog/the-battle-of-the-g-networks.
10. Al with Dan Hesse, 2013-14.
11. Unless otherwise noted, all IoT information and Padma Warrior quotes come from an AI with Padma, 2013.
12. Cisco, “2013 IoE Value Index,” Cisco.com, 2013, http://internetofeverything.cisco.com/learn/2013-ioe-value-index-whitepaper.  URL Change: http://ioeassessment.cisco.com/learn/2013-ioe-value-index-whitepaper
13. NAVTEQ, “NAVTEQ Traffic Patterns,” Navmart.com, 2008, http://www.navmart.com/pdf/NAVmart_TrafficPatterns.pdf.
14. Juho Erkheikki, “Nokia to Buy Navteq for \$8.1 Billion, Take on TomTom (Update7),” Bloomberg, October 1, 2007, http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=ayyeY1gIHSSg.
15. John Swartz, “Show me the Waze: Google maps a \$1 billion deal,” USA Today, June 12, 2013, http://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2013/06/11/google-waze/2411871/. Corrected Author: Jon Swartz.
16. Cisco, “2013 IoE Value Index.” See http://ioeassessment.cisco.com/learn/2013-ioe-value-index-whitepaper.
17. See https://www.getturnstyle.com/.
19. See http://www.coherohealth.com/#home.
20. AI with Briggs conducted 2014.
21. J. P. Mangalindan, “A digital maestro for every object in the home,” Fortune, June 7, 2013, http://fortune.com/2013/06/07/a-digital-maestro-for-every-object-in-the-home/.
22. Unless otherwise noted, all Bass quotes and Autodesk information comes from a series of AIs with Carl Bass conducted 2012-2014.
23. Michio Kaku, “The Future of Computing Power [Fast, Cheap, and Invisible],” Big Think, April 24, 2010, http://bigthink.com/dr-kakus-universe/the-future-of-computing-power-fast-cheap-and-invisible.
24. AI with Graham Weston, 2013.
25. 2001: A Space Odyssey, directed by Stanley Kubrick (1968; Beverly Hills, CA: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer), DVD release, 2011.
26. Iron Man, directed by Jon Favreau (2008; Burbank, CA: Walt Disney Studios), DVD.
27. Al with Ray Kurzweil, 2013.
28. See: http://www.xprize.org/ted. As of the end of 2014, this prize is only in concept form. A detailed design and a design sponsor is still required.
31. AI with Jeremy Howard, 2013.
32. For information on the German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmark see http://benchmark.ini.rub.de/.
33. Geoffrey Hinton et al., “ImageNet Classification with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks,” http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~fritz/absps/imagenet.pdf.
34. John Markoff, “Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software,” New York Times, March 4, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/05/science/05legal.html.
35. David Schatsky and Vikram Mahidhar, “Intelligent automation: A new era of innovation,” Deloitte University Press, January 22, 2014, http://dupress.com/articles/intelligent-automation-a-new-era-of-innovation/.
36. John Markoff, “Computer Wins on ‘Jeopardy!’: Trivial, It’s Not,” New York Times, February 16, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/17/science/17jeopardy-watson.html?pagewanted=all.
37. “IBM Watson’s Next Venture: Fueling New Era of Cognitive Apps Built in the Cloud by Developers,” IBM Press Release, November 14, 2013, http://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/42451.wss.
38. Nancy Dahlberg, “Modernizing Medicine, supercomputer Watson team up,” Miami Herald, May 16, 2014.  See http://miamiherald.typepad.com/the-starting-gate/2014/05/modernizing-medicine-supercomputer-watson-team-up.html.
39. Al with Daniel Cane, 2014.
40. Ray Kurzweil, “The Law of Accelerating Returns.” http://www.kurzweilai.net/the-law-of-accelerating-returns.
41. Daniela Hernandez, “Meet the Man Google Hired to Make AI a Reality,” Wired, January 16, 2014, http://www.wired.com/2014/01/geoffrey-hinton-deep-learning/.
42. Al with Gordie Rose, 2014.
43. See http://1qbit.com/.
44. John McCarthy, Marvin L. Minsky, Nathaniel Rochester, and Claude E. Shannon, “A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence,” AI Magazine,  August 31, 1955, 12—14. See http://www.aaai.org/ojs/index.php/aimagazine/article/view/1904/1802.
45. Jim Lewis, “Robots of Arabia,” Wired, Issue 13.11 (November 2005). See http://www.wired.com/2005/11/camel/.
46. Garry Mathiason et al., “The Transformation Of the Workplace Through Roboctics, Artificial Intelligence, and Automation,” The Littler Report, February 2014, http://documents.jdsupra.com/d4936b1e-ca6c-4ce9-9e83-07906bfca22c.pdf.
47. See http://www.rethinkrobotics.com/.
48. All Dan Barry quotes in this section come  from an AI conducted 2013.
49. The Cambrian explosion was an evolutionary event beginning about 542 million years ago, during which most of the major animal phyla appeared.
50. See “Amazon Prime Air,” Amazon.com, http://www.amazon.com/b?node=8037720011.
52. Brad Stone, “Smarter Robots, With No Wage Demands,” Bloomberg Businessweek, September 18, 2012, http://www.bloomberg.com/bw/articles/2012-09-18/smarter-robots-with-no-pesky-uprisings.
53. Aviva Hope Rutkin, “Report Suggests Nearly Half of U.S. Jobs Are Vulnerable to Computerization,” MIT Technology Review, September 12, 2013, http://www.technologyreview.com/view/519241/report-suggests-nearly-half-of-us-jobs-are-vulnerable-to-computerization/.
54. Lee Chyen Yee and Clare Jim, “Foxconn to rely more on robots; could use 1 million in 3 years,” Reuters, August 1, 2011, http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/08/01/us-foxconn-robots-idUSTRE77016B20110801.
55. Jennifer Wang, “Cutting-Edge Startups Leading the Robotic Revolution,” Entrepreneur, June 3, 2013, http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/226397.
56. For a great introduction to and overview of synthetic biology, see Andrew Hessel’s blog at http://andrewhessel.com/.
57. Elsa Wenzel, “Scientists create glow-in-the-dark cats,” CNET, December 12, 2007, http://www.cnet.com/news/scientists-create-glow-in-the-dark-cats/.
58. All Andrew Hessel quotes come from a series of AIs conducted in 2013.
59. For a full recounting of Venter’s discoveries, see Steven Kotler, Marc Goodman, and Andrew Hessel, “Hacking the President’s DNA,” The Atlantic, October 24, 2012, http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2012/11/hacking-the-presidents-dna/309147/.
60. AI with Carlos Olguin conducted in 2013.  Also see http://www.autodeskresearch.com/projects/cyborg.
61. See http://www.humanlongevity.com/.
62. Walter Isaacson, Steve Jobs (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2011), 92.

### Chapter Four: Climbing Mount Bold

1. “Skunk works,” Worldwidewords.com, http://www.worldwidewords.org/qa/qa-sku1.htm. Corrected: Worldwidewords.org
2. Lockheed Martin, “Skunk Works Origin Story,” Lockheedmartin.com, http://www.lockheedmartin.com/us/aeronautics/skunkworks/origin.html.
3. Matthew E May, “The Rules of Successful Skunk Works Projects,” Fast Company, October 9, 2012, http://www.fastcompany.com/3001702/rules-successful-skunk-works-projects.
4. Unless otherwise noted, all Gary Latham and Edwin Locke quotes are taken from a series of AIs conducted in 2013.
5. Edwin Locke and Gary Latham, “New Directions in Goal-Setting Theory,” Current Directions in Psychological Science 15, no. 5 (2006): 265—68. See http://cmaleadershipconsultants.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/New-directions-in-goal-setting.pdf.
6. Lockheed Martin, “Kelly’s 14 Rules & Practices,” Lockheedmartin.com, http://www.lockheedmartin.com/us/aeronautics/skunkworks/14rules.html.
7. Jeff Bezos, “2012 re:Invent Day 2: Fireside Chat with Jeff Bezos & Werner Vogels,”
November 29, 2012. See https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O4MtQGRIIuA. [Video 41:35]
8. Dominic Basulto, “The new #Fail: Fail fast, fail early and fail often,” Washington Post, May 30, 2012, https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/innovations/post/the-new-fail-fail-fast-fail-early-and-fail-often/2012/05/30/gJQAKA891U_blog.html.
9. John Anderson, “Change on a Dime: Agile Design,” UX Magazine, July 19, 2011, https://uxmag.com/articles/change-on-a-dime-agile-design.
10. Al with Ismail, 2013.
11. For an amazing breakdown of these ideas, see Dan Pink. “RSA Animate—Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us,” RSA, April 1, 2010, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u6XAPnuFjJc. [Video 10:48]
12. Daniel Kahneman, “The riddle of experience vs. memory,” TED. March 1, 2010, https://www.ted.com/talks/daniel_kahneman_the_riddle_of_experience_vs_memory/. [Video 20:06]
13. Daniel H. Pink, Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (New York: Rivcrhcad Books, 2010).
15. James Marshall Reilly, “The Zappos Story: How Failure can Fuel Business Success,” Monster.com, http://hiring.monster.com/hr/hr-best-practices/workforce-management/hr-management-skills/Business-Success.aspx.
16. All Astro Teller quotes come from a series of AIs conducted between 2013 and 2014.
17. Susan Wojcicki, “The Eight Pillars of Innovation,” thinkwithgoogle.com, July
18. For a much deeper look at How and its impact on performance see Steven Kotler,  “The Rise of Superman: Decoding the Science of Ultimate Human Performance,” (New York: New Harvest, 2014).
19. AI with John Hagel conducted 2014.
20. Steven Kotler and Jamie Wheal, “Five Surprising Ways Richard Branson Harnessed Flow To Build A Multi-Billion Dollar Empire,” Forbes, March 25, 2014, http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevenkotler/2014/03/25/five-surprising-ways-richard-branson-harnessed-flow-to-build-a-multi-billion-dollar-empire/.
21. Steven Kotler, “The Rise of Superman: 17 Flow Triggers,” Slideshare.net, March 2014, http://www.slideshare.net/StevenKotler/17-flow-triggers.
22. Al with Ned Hallowell conducted 2013.
23. Kevin Rathunde, “Montessori Education and Optimal Experience: A Framework for New Research,” The NAMTA Journal (Winter 2001): 1 1—43. See http://www.montessori-namta.org/PDF/rathundeframework.pdf.
24. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience (New York: Harper & Row, 1990), 48—70.
25. For a great breakdown of group flow and the social triggers see Keith Sawyer, Group Genius: The Creative Power of Collaboration (New York: Basic Books), 2008.
26. Al with Ismail, 2013.

### Chapter Five: The Secrets of Going Big

1. Jon Stewart, The Daily Show, April 24, 2012. Corrected Date: April 25, 2015 See http://www.cc.com/video-clips/278huq/the-daily-show-with-jon-stewart-space-innovators.
2. See http://www.planetaryresources.com.
3. Space Adventures was cofounded in partnership with Mike McDowell, who served as the company’s first CEO and chairman.
4. For a nice breakdown of Branson’s space plans, see Elizabeth Howell, “Virgin Galactic Richard Branson’s Space Tourism Company,” Space.com, December 20, 2012, http://www.space.com/18993-virgin-galactic.html.
5. See http://www.blueorigin.com.
6. Justine Bachman, “Elon Musk Wants SpaceX to Replace Russia as NASA’s Space Station Transport,” Bloomberg Businessweek, April 30, 2014, http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2014-04-30/elon-musk-wants-spacex-to-replace-russia-as-nasas-space-station-transport.  Updated URL: See http://www.bloomberg.com/bw/articles/2014-04-30/elon-musk-wants-spacex-to-replace-russia-as-nasas-space-station-transport.
7. Al with Chris Anderson conducted 2013.
8. Mikhail S. Arlazorov, “Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky,” Britannica.com, May 30, 2013, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/607781/Konstan tin-Eduardovich-Tsiolkovsky.  Updated URL: See http://www.britannica.com/biography/Konstantin-Eduardovich-Tsiolkovsky.
9. For a breakdown of these missions, see Steven Kotler, “The Great Galactic Gold Rush,” Playboy, March, 2011 , available at: www.stevenkotler.com. See http://www.stevenkotler.com/the-great-galactic-gold-rush/.
10. See http://seds.org.
11. The early founding days of SEDS was supported by a number of key individuals who deserve recognition, including James Muncy, Morris Hornik, Maryann Grams, Frank Taylor, Brian Ceccarelli, Eric Dahlstrom, David C. Webb, Gregg Maryniak, Scott Scharfman, and Eric Drexler.
12. See http://www.isunet.edu.
13. The event was called Space Fair. It was held in 1983, 1985, and 1987. Ken Sunshine, vice-chairman,deserves recognition. Special thanks to MIT president Paul Gray, who supported me far beyond what I deserved and taught me that MIT has viscosity. You get things done as long as you keep pushing.
15. It was my dear friend Gregg Maryniak who first introduced me to this story. As it has been fundamental to my success, a deep debt of gratitude is owed.
16. Wikipedia does a great job with the history of “stone soup,” see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stone_Soup. Also see Marcia Brown, Stone Soup (New York: Aladdin Picture Books), 1997.
17. AI with Hagel.
18. John Hagel, “Pursuing Passion,” Edge Perspectives with John Hagel, November 14, 2009, http://edgeperspectives.typepad.com/edge_perspectives/2009/11/pursuing-passion.html.
19. Gregory Berns, “In Hard Times, Fear Can Impair Decision Making,” New York Times, December 6, 2008. See http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/07/jobs/07pre.html?_r=0.

### Chapter Six: Billionaire Wisdom: Thinking at Scale

1. Elon Musk, “The Rocket Scientist Model for Iron Man,” Time, http://content.time.com/time/video/player/0,32068,81836143001_1987904,00.html. [Video 2:21]
2. Unless otherwise noted, historical details and Musk quotes come from a series of AIs between 2012 and 2014.
3. AI, XPRIZE Adventure Trip, February 2013.
4. Thomas Owen, “Tesla’s Elon Musk: ‘I Ran Out of Cash’,” VentureBeat, May 2010, http://venturebeat.com/2010/05/27/elon-musk-personal-finances/.
5. Andrew Sorkin, Dealbook: “Elon Musk, of PayPal and Tesla Fame, Is Broke,” New York Times, June 2010, http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2010/06/22/sorkin-elon-musk-of-paypal-and-tesla-fame-is-broke/.
7. Kenneth Chang, “First Private Craft Docks With Space Station,”
New York Times, May 25, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/26/science/space/space-x-capsule-docks-at-space-station.html.
8. Elon Musk interviewed by Kevin Fong, Scott’s Legacy, a BBC Radio 4 program, cited in Jonathan Amos, “Mars for the ‘average person,’ ” BBC News, March 20, 2012, http://www.bbc.com/news/health-17439490.
9. Diarmuid O’Connell, Statement from Tesla’s vice president of corporate and business development, reported in Hunter Walker, “White House Won’t Back Tesla in Direct Sales Fight” in
10. Daniel Gross, “Elon’s Élan,” Slate, April 30, 2014, http://www.slate.com/articles/business/moneybox/2014/04/tesla_and_spacex_founder_elon_musk_has_a_knack_for_getting_others_to_fund.html.
11. Kevin Rose, “Elon Musk,” Video Interview, Episode 20,
Foundation, September 2012, http://foundation.bz/20/. [Video 26:42]
13. Chris Anderson, “The Shared Genius of Elon Musk and Steve Jobs,” Fortune, November 21, 2013, http://fortune.com/2013/11/21/the-shared-genius-of-elon-musk-and-steve-jobs/.
14. AI, September 2013.
15. Eric Kelsey, “Branson recalls tears, \$1 billion check in Virgin Records sale,” Reuters, October 23, 2013, http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/10/24/us-richardbranson-virgin-idUSBRE99N01U20131024.
16. Forbes, The World’s Billionaires: #303 Richard Branson, August 2014, http://www.forbes.com/profile/richard-branson/.
17. Richard Branson, “BA Can’t Get It Up – best stunt ever?,” Virgin, 2012, http://www.virgin.com/richard-branson/ba-cant-get-it-up-best-stunt-ever.
18. 18 Richard Branson, Screw It, Let’s Do It: Lessons in Life (Virgin Books, March 2006).
19. “Galactic Announces Partnership,” Virgin Galactic, July 2009, http://www.virgingalactic.com/news/item/galactic-anounces-partnership/.  Dead link see https://web.archive.org/web/20091203192720/http://www.virgingalactic.com/news/item/galactic-anounces-partnership/
20. Nour Malas, “Abu Dhabi’s Aabar boosts Virgin Galactic stake,” Market Watch, October 19, 2011, http://www.marketwatch.com/story/abu-dhabis-aabar-boosts-virgin-galactic-stake-2011-10-19.
21. Loretta Hidalgo Whitesides, “Google and Virgin Team Up to Spell ‘Virgle,’ ” Wired, April 1, 2008, http://www.wired.com/2008/04/google-and-virg/.
22. “Jeffrey Preston Bezos,” Bio. A&E Television Networks, 2014, http://www.biography.com/people/jeff-bezos-9542209.
23. Brad Stone, The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon (New York: Little, Brown, 2014).
24. “Jeffrey P. Bezos Biography,” Academy of Achievement, November 2013, http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/bez0bio-1.
25. Suzanne Galante and Dawn Kawamoto, “Amazon IPO skyrockets,” CNET, May 15, 1997, http://news.cnet.com/2100-1001-279781.html.  URL Change see http://www.cnet.com/news/amazon-com-ipo-skyrockets/.
26. Jeffery P. Bezos, “1997 Letter to Shareholders,” Amazon.com,
27. “2012 re: Invent Day 2: Fireside Chat with Jeff Bezos and Werner Vogels.” See https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O4MtQGRIIuA. [Video 41:35]
29. James Stewart, “Amazon Says Long Term and Means It,”
New York Times, December 16, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/17/business/at-amazon-jeff-bezos-talks-long-term-and-means-it.html?_r=0.
30. “Utah Technology Council Hall of Fame—Jeff Bezos Keynote,” Utah Technology Council, published online April 30, 2013, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G-0KJF3uLP8. [Video 40:55]
32. Alistair Barr, “Amazon testing delivery by drone, CEO Bezos Says,”
USA Today, December 2, 2013, referencing a 60 Minutes interview with Jeff Bezos, http://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2013/12/01/amazon-bezos-drone-delivery/3799021/.
33. Jay Yarow, “Jeff Bezos’ Shareholder Letter Is Out,”
34. “Larry Page Biography,” Academy of Achievement, January 21, 2011, http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/pag0bio-1.
35. Marcus Wohlsen, “Google Without Larry Page Would Not Be Like Apple Without Steve Jobs,” Wired,October 18, 2013, http://www.wired.com/2013/10/google-without-page/.
37. Larry Page, “Beyond Today—Larry Page—Zeitgeist 2012,” Google Zeitgeist, Zeitgeist Minds, May 22, 2012, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y0WH-CoFwn4. [Video 19:29]
38. Matt Ridley, The Rational Optimist: How Prosperity Evolves
(New York: HarperCollins, 2010).
40. Joann Muller, “No Hands, No Feet: My Unnerving Ride in Google’s Driverless Car,” Forbes, March 21, 2013, http://www.forbes.com/sites/joannmuller/2013/03/21/no-hands-no-feet-my-unnerving-ride-in-googles-driverless-car/.
41. Robert Hof, “10 Breakthrough Technologies 2013: Deep Learning,” MIT Technology Review, April 23, 2013, http://www.technologyreview.com/featuredstory/513696/deep-learning/.
42. Steven Levy, “Google’s Larry Page on Why Moon Shots Matter,”
Wired, January 17, 2013, http://www.wired.com/2013/01/ff-qa-larry-page/all/.
43. Larry Page, “Beyond Today—Larry Page—Zeitgeist 2012.” See https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y0WH-CoFwn4. [Video 19:29]
45. Harry McCracken and Lev Grossman, “Google vs. Death,” Time, September 30, 2013, http://time.com/574/google-vs-death/.

### Chapter Seven: Crowdsourcing: Marketplace of the Rising Billion

1. Netcraft Web Server Survey, Netcraft, Accessed June 2014, http://news.netcraft.com/archives/category/web-server-survey/.  See http://news.netcraft.com/archives/2014/06/06/june-2014-web-server-survey.html.
2. AI with Jake Nickell and Jacob DeHart.
3. Jeff Howe, “The Rise of Crowdfunding,” Wired, 2006, http://archive.wired.com/wired/archive/14.06/crowds_pr.html.
5. Jeff Howe, “Crowdsourcing: A Definition,” Crowdsourcing, http://crowdsourcing.typepad.com/cs/2006/06/crowdsourcing_a.html.
7. Rob Walker, “The Trivialities and Transcendence of Kickstarter,”
New York Times, August 5, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/07/magazine/the-trivialities-and-transcendence-of-kickstarter.html?%20pagewanted=all&_r=0.
8. “Stats,” Kickstarter, https://www.kickstarter.com/help/stats.
9. Doug Gross, “Google boss: Entire world will be online by 2020,” CNN, April 15, 2013, http://www.cnn.com/2013/04/15/tech/web/eric-schmidt-internet/.
10. “Global entertainment and media outlook 2013–2017,” PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2013, https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/global-entertainment-media-outlook/. Page content changed see https://web.archive.org/web/20130530221958/http://www.pwc.com/gx/en/global-entertainment-media-outlook.
11. Freelancer Case Study based on a series of AIs.
12. Quoted from AI: Matt Barrie.
13. Tongal Case Study based on a series of AIs with James DeJulio.
14. reCAPTCHA and Duolingo Case Study based on a series of AIs with Luis von Ahn.
15. During the completion of this book, a Bay Area startup called Vicarious wrote an AI program able to solve (i.e., read) CAPTCHAs with an accuracy of 90 percent. As mentioned earlier, “crowdsourcing” is aninterim solution until such AI comes fully online. This is a relevant example of that point.  See http://news.vicarious.com/post/65316134613/vicarious-ai-passes-first-turing-test-captcha.
16. “FAQ—Overview,” Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon.com, Inc., 2014, https://www.mturk.com/mturk/help?helpPage=overview.
17. “What is Fiverr?,” Fiverr.com, 2014, http://support.fiverr.com/hc/en-us/articles/201500776-What-is-Fiverr-.
18. Unless otherwise noted, all Matt Barrie quotes come from a 2013 AI.
19. AIs with Marcus Shingles, 2013–2014.
20. AI with Andrew Vaz.
22. AI with Barrie.
23. Ibid.
24. AI with James DeJulio, 2013.
25. AI with Barrie.
26. Ibid.
27. “Vicarious AI passes first Turing Test: CAPTCHA,” Vicarious, October 27, 2013, http://news.vicarious.com/post/65316134613/vicarious-ai-passes-first-turing-test-captcha.

### Chapter Eight: Crowdfunding: No Bucks, No Buck Rogers

1. “Statistics about Business Size (including Small Business) from the U.S. Census Bureau,” Statistics of US Businesses, United States Census Bureau, 2007, https://www.census.gov/econ/smallbus.html.
3. Devin Thorpe, “Why Crowdfunding Will Explode in 2013,”
4. Victoria Silchenko, “Why Crowdfunding Is The Next Big Thing: Let’s Talk Numbers,” Huffington Post, October 22, 2012, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/victoria-silchenko/why-crowdfunding-is-the-n_b_1990230.html.
5. Laurie Kulikowski, “How Equity Crowdfunding Can Swell to a \$300 Billion Industry,” The Street, January 14, 2013, http://www.thestreet.com/story/11811196/1/how-equity-crowdfunding-can-swell-to-a-300-billion-industry.html.
6. “Floating Pool Project Is Fully Funded And New Yorkers Everywhere Should Celebrate,” Huffington Post, July 12, 2013, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/07/12/floating-pool-project-is-fully-funded_n_3587814.html.
7. AI with Joshua Klein, 2013.
8. Dan Leone, “Planetary Resources Raises \$1.5M for Crowdfunded Space Telescope,” Space.com, July 14, 2013, http://www.space.com/21953-planetary-resources-crowdfunded-space-telescope.html.
9. For a good breakdown of these rules, please see http://www.cfira.org.
10. AI with Chance Barnett, 2013.
11. This information sits on a banner across the top of their landing page: https://www.crowdfunder.com, our numbers were gathered in June 2014.
12. See http://blog.angel.co/post/59121578519/wow-uber.
13. Tomio Geron, “AngelList, With SecondMarket, Opens Deals to Small Investors for as Little as \$1K,” Forbes, December 19, 2012, http://www.forbes.com/sites/tomiogeron/2012/12/19/angellist-with-secondmarket-opens-deals-to-small-investors-for-as-little-as-1k/.
14. John McDermott, “Pebble ‘Smartwatch’ Funding Soars on Kickstarter,” Inc., April 20, 2012, http://www.inc.com/john-mcdermott/pebble-smartwatch-funding-sets-kickstarter-record.html.
15. Dara Kerr, “World’s first public space telescope gets Kickstarter goal,” CNET, July 1, 2013, http://www.cnet.com/news/worlds-first-public-space-telescope-gets-kickstarter-goal/.
16. McDermott, “Pebble ‘Smartwatch’ Funding Soars on Kickstarter.” See http://www.inc.com/john-mcdermott/pebble-smartwatch-funding-sets-kickstarter-record.html.
17. See https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/let-s-build-a-goddamn-tesla-museum–5.
18. Kerr, “World’s first public space telescope gets Kickstarter goal.” See http://www.cnet.com/news/worlds-first-public-space-telescope-gets-kickstarter-goal/.
20. All Indiegogo stats come from AIs with founders Danae Ringelmann and Slava Rubin, conducted in 2013.
21. Ibid.
22. Ibid.
23. AI with Eric Migicovsky, 2013.
24. See http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/abrahamlin109275.html.
25. Eric Gilbert and Tanushree Mitra, “The Language that Gets People to Give: Phrases that Predict Success onKickstarter,”
CSCW’14, February 15, 2014, http://comp.social.gatech.edu/papers/cscw14.crowdfunding.mitra.pdf.
26. AI with Ringelmann and Rubin, 2013.
27. AI with Migicovsky.
28. AI with Ringelmann and Rubin.
29. AI with Migicovsky.

### Chapter Nine: Building Communities

1. Clay Shirky, “How cognitive surplus will change the world,” TED, June 2010, https://www.ted.com/talks/clay_shirky_how_cognitive_surplus_will_change_the_world. [Video 13:07]
2. The term MTP was first described by Salim Ismail in his recent book Exponential Organizations: Why new organizations are ten times better, faster, cheaper than yours (and what to do about it)
to describe a unique, powerful, and simple statement of your mission. Google’s MTP is to “Organize the world’s information.” TED’s MTP is “ideas worth spreading.”
3. This is sometimes called Joy’s Law, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joy’s_Law_(management).  Bad URL see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joy%27s_law_(management).
4. For DIY drones, see Chris Anderson, “How I Accidentally Kickstarted the Domestic Drone Boom,” Wired, June 22, 2012, http://www.wired.com/2012/06/ff_drones. For Local Motors, https://localmotors.com/.
5. AI with Gina Bianchini, 2014.
6. Joshua Klein, Reputation Economics: Why Who You Know Is Worth More Than What You Have (New York: Palgrave Macmillan Trade, 2013).
7. All Klein quotes come from an AI with Joshua Klein, 2014
8. AI with Bianchini.
9. James Glanz, “What Else Lurks Out There? New Census of the Heavens Aims to Find Out,” New York Times, March 17, 1998, http://www.nytimes.com/1998/03/17/science/what-else-lurks-out-there-new-census-of-the-heavens-aims-to-find-out.html.
10. All Kevin Schawinski quotes come from an AI conducted in 2013.
11. For a breakdown of Galaxy Zoo’s history, see http://www.galaxyzoo.org/#/story.
12. All Jay Rogers quotes come from a series of AIs conducted in 2013 and 2014.
13. Reena Jana, “Local Motors: A New Kind of Car Company,”
14. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Unemployment Rate for the 50 Largest Cities,” United States Department of Labor, April 18, 2014, http://www.bls.gov/lau/lacilg10.htm.  Page content changed http://web.archive.org/web/20140607181344/http://www.bls.gov/lau/lacilg10.htm.
15. AI with Bianchini.
16. Chris Anderson, “In the Next Industrial Revolution, Atoms Are the New Bits,” Wired, January 25, 2010, http://www.wired.com/2010/01/ff_newrevolution/all/.
17. Megan Wollerton, “GE and Local Motors team up to make small-batch appliances,” CNET, March 21, 2014, http://www.cnet.com/news/ge-and-local-motors-team-up-to-make-small-batch-appliances/.
18. All Jack Hughes quotes come from an AI conducted in 2014.
19. For a breakdown of the TopCoder rating system, see http://community.topcoder.com/longcontest/?module=Static&d1=support&d2=ratings.
20. Carolyn Johnson, “Thorny research problems, solved by crowdsourcing,” Boston Globe, February 11, 2013, http://www.bostonglobe.com/business/2013/02/11crowdsourcing-innovation-harvard-study-suggests-prizes-can-spur-scientific-problem-solving/JxDkOkuIKboRjWAoJpM0OK/story.html.  Bad URL? see http://www.bostonglobe.com/business/2013/02/11/crowdsourcing-innovation-harvard-study-suggests-prizes-can-spur-scientific-problem-solving/JxDkOkuIKboRjWAoJpM0OK/story.html
21. AI with Narinder Singh, 2014.
22. AI with Chris Anderson, 2013.
23. Richard Millington, “7 Contrary Truths About Online Communities,” Feverbee.com, September 22, 2010, http://www.feverbee.com/2010/09/7truths.html.  URL Change: https://www.feverbee.com/7truths/.
24. AI with Jono Bacon, 2014.
25. Jolie O’Dell, “10 Fresh Tips for Community Managers,”
Mashable, April 13, 2010, http://mashable.com/2010/04/13/community-manager-tips/.
26. Seth Godin, “Why You Need to Lead A Tribe,” Mixergy.com, January 13, 2009, http://mixergy.com/interviews/tribes-seth/. [Video 5:25]
27. AI with Better Blocks founder Jason Roberts, 2014. Also see his pretty amazing TEDx Talk: TEDxOU— Jason Roberts—How to Build a Better Block, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ntwqVDzdqAU. [Video 18:10]

### Chapter Ten: Incentive Competitions: Getting the Best and Brightest to Help Solve Your Challenges

1. Charles Lindbergh, The Spirit of St. Louis (New York: Scribner, 1953).
2. Stephen Schaber, “Why Napoleon Offered a Prize for Inventing Canned Food,” NPR, March 5, 2012, http://www.npr.org/sections/money/2012/03/01/147751097/why-napoleon-offered-a-prize-for-inventing-canned-food.
3. Knowledge Ecology International, “Selected Innovation Prizes and Reward Programs,” KEI Research Note2008:1, http://keionline.org/misc-docs/research_notes/kei_rn_2008_1.pdf.
4. All Marcus Shingles quotes come from an AI conducted 2014.
5. Burt Rutan, “The real future of space exploration,” TED, February 2006, https://www.ted.com/talks/burt_rutan_sees_the_future_of_space. [Video 19:27]
6. Statista, “Statistics and facts on Sports Sponsorship,”
Sports sponsorship Statista Dossier 2013, March 2013.
7. Alice Roberts, “A true sea shanty: the story behind the Longitude prize,” The Observer, May 17, 2014, http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/may/18/true-sea-shanty-story-behind-longitude-prize-john-harrison.
8. See http://www.interculturalstudies.org/faq.html#quote.
9. Dan Heath and Chip Heath, “Get Back in the Box: How Constraints Can Free Your Team’s Thinking,”
Fast Company, December 1, 2007, http://www.fastcompany.com/61175/get-back-box.
10. For all things LunarX, see http://www.googlelunarxprize.org.  URL Change http://lunar.xprize.org/.
11. Campbell Robertson and Clifford Krauss, “Gulf Spill Is the Largest of Its Kind, Scientists Say,” New York Times, August 2, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/03/us/03spill.html?_r=0.
12. See http://www.iprizecleanoceans.org.  URL Change see: http://oilcleanup.xprize.org/.
13. Special thanks to Cristin Dorgelo, then head of this XPRIZE, who spent her summer on the hot and humid Jersey Shore overseeing the judging and operations.
14. See http://www.qualcommtricorderxprize.org.  UR: Change see: http://tricorder.xprize.org/.
15. Kate Greene, “The \$1 Million Netflix Challenge,” MIT Technology Review, October 6, 2006, http://www.technologyreview.com/news/406637/the-1-million-netflix-challenge/.
16. Jordan Ellenberg, “This Psychologist Might Outsmart the Math Brains Competing for the Netflix Prize,” Wired, February 25, 2008, http://archive.wired.com/techbiz/media/magazine/16-03/mf_netflix?currentPage=all.17.
17. Ibid.
18. See http://herox.com.
19. Special recognition to Emily Fowler, who helped to found HeroX and transitioned from XPRIZE employment to VP of Possibilities at HeroX.
20. AI with Graham Weston, 2014.
21. “Geekdom and HeroX Launch San Antonio Entrepreneurial Exchange Challenge with \$500,000 Prize,” Reuters, January 16, 2014, http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/01/16/idUSnMKWN1dCba+1e4+MKW20140116.
22. Vivek Wadhwa, “The powerful role of incentive competitions to spur innovation,” Washington Post, May21, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/innovations/wp/2014/05/21/the-powerful-role-of-incentive-competitions-to-spur-innovation/.
23. Paul Wahl, “The Winner,” Popular Science, January 1958.
24. Richard P. Feynman, “Plenty of Room at the Bottom,” California Institute of Technology, December 1959. For full transcript of the lecture, see http://www.its.caltech.edu/~feynman/plenty.html.
25. Richard E. Smalley, “Dr. Feynman’s Small Idea,”
Innovation 5, no. 5 (October/November 2007), http://www.innovation-america.org/dr-feynmans-small-idea.
26. AI with Shingles.
27. For arguably the best bit of writing on the adjacent possible, see Steven Johnson, “The Genius of the Tinkerer,” Wall Street Journal, September 25, 2010, http://online.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748703989304575503730101860838. Also see “The AdjacentPossible: A Talk with Stuart A. Kauffman,” Edge.org, November 9, 2003, http://edge.org/conversation/the-adjacent-possible.

Notes section annotated from Bold.

Peter H. Diamandis and Steven Kotler, “Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World,” (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015), 283-300.

# Exact Horsepower to Watt Calculation

Also know as: Where does 37284993579113511/50000000000000 come from?

1 hp = 33000 ft-lbf/min by definition

1 min = 60 s

1 foot = 3048/10000 (0.3048) meter

1 lb = 45359237/100000000 (0.45359237) kg

1 g = 196133/20000 (9.80665) m/s²

therefore:

1 hp =  =

watt

### Exact results

1 hp = 37284993579113511/50000000000000 watt exactly (irreducible fraction) or

1 hp = 745.69987158227022 watt exactly (decimal)

### See the input on Wolfram Alpha

http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=%2833000*3048*45359237*196133%29%2F%2860*10000*100000000*20000%29

### Compare to the given fraction:

http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=37284993579113511%2F50000000000000

Where used:

Embedded images from Wolfram Alpha

Floating Point Math – Your language isn’t broken, it’s doing floating point math. Computers can only natively store integers, so they need some way of representing decimal numbers. This representation comes with some degree of inaccuracy. That’s why, more often than not, .1 + .2 != .3.

Link to some examples of sending .1 + .2 to standard output in a variety of languages.

http://0.30000000000000004.com/

Google self-driving car pulled over for ‘driving too slowly’ in Mountain View – The Google car was pulled over for doing 25 (it’s top speed) in a 35 MPH zone.  By the vehicle’s classification as a “neighborhood electric vehicle”, it was perfectly legal for it to be doing so.

Wolfram Language and Mathematica on the Raspberry Pi

http://www.wolfram.com/raspberry-pi/

# How to figure out the location where a form posts

If you are trying to figure out where a form posts (for instance to see whether or not it submits information securely) and the post location isn’t readily view-able in the page source, here is how to do it: