Category Archives: Abbreviation

Alphabetical 50 US States & Abbreviations List

An online, alphabetical list of the 50 US State names, postal code (2 letter abbreviations), and AP style abbreviations is convenient to have around.  Teachers, students, business people, and developers can find this handy.  Make lists in spreadsheets, menus, arrays, drop-down lists or combination boxes.

Alphabetical 50 US States & Abbreviations

Uppercase Name Name Postal Code Abbreviation
ALABAMA Alabama AL Ala.
ALASKA Alaska AK Alaska
ARIZONA Arizona AZ Ariz.
ARKANSAS Arkansas AR Ark.
CALIFORNIA California CA Calif.
COLORADO Colorado CO Colo.
CONNECTICUT Connecticut CT Conn.
DELAWARE Delaware DE Del.
FLORIDA Florida FL Fla.
GEORGIA Georgia GA Ga.
HAWAII Hawaii HI Hawaii
IDAHO Idaho ID Idaho
ILLINOIS Illinois IL Ill.
INDIANA Indiana IN Ind.
IOWA Iowa IA Iowa
KANSAS Kansas KS Kan.
KENTUCKY Kentucky KY Ky.
LOUISIANA Louisiana LA La.
MAINE Maine ME Maine
MARYLAND Maryland MD Md.
MASSACHUSETTS Massachusetts MA Mass.
MICHIGAN Michigan MI Mich.
MINNESOTA Minnesota MN Minn.
MISSISSIPPI Mississippi MS Miss.
MISSOURI Missouri MO Mo.
MONTANA Montana MT Mont.
NEBRASKA Nebraska NE Neb.
NEVADA Nevada NV Nev.
OHIO Ohio OH Ohio
OKLAHOMA Oklahoma OK Okla.
OREGON Oregon OR Ore.
PENNSYLVANIA Pennsylvania PA Pa.
TENNESSEE Tennessee TN Tenn.
TEXAS Texas TX Texas
UTAH Utah UT Utah
VERMONT Vermont VT Vt.
VIRGINIA Virginia VA Va.
WASHINGTON Washington WA Wash.
WEST VIRGINIA West Virginia WV W.Va.
WISCONSIN Wisconsin WI Wis.
WYOMING Wyoming WY Wyo.


creative-commons-atribution-88x31 This list is available under a Creative Commons Attribution license (CC BY 3.0)

Download “US States List” sot-us-states.csv – Downloaded 289 times – 2 KB

Cryptography Acronyms / Abbreviations / Portmanteaus

Acronym / Abbreviation / Portmanteau Meaning
3DES Triple Data Encryption Standard
AE Authenticated Encryption
AEAD Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data
AES Advanced Encryption Standard
ALPN Application-Layer Protocol Negotiation
ANSI American National Standards Institute
BEAST Browser Exploit Against SSL/TLS
CBC Cipher Block Chaining
CCM Counter with CBC-MAC
CCMP CTR mode with CBC-MAC Protocol
CFB Cipher Feedback
CMAC Cipher-based Message Authentication Code
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Ccheck
CRL Certificate Revocation List
CTR Counter
CWC Carter-Wegman + CTR mode
DES Data Encryption Standard
EAP Extensible Authentication Protocol
ECB Electronic Codebook
ECC Elliptic Curve Cryptography
ESSIV Encrypted salt-sector initialization vector
FDE Full Disk Encryption
FIPS Federal Information Processing Standard
GCM Galois/Counter Mode
GTK Group Temporal Key
HMAC keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code
HTTPS Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure
IAPM Integrity Aware Parallelizable Mode
ICM Integer Counter Mode
IDEA International Data Encryption Algorithm
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
ISO International Organization for Standardization
IV Initialization Vector
KEK Key Encryption Key
KPK Key Production Key
KSA Key-scheduling algorithm
LFSR Linear feedback shift register
LRW Liskov, Rivest, and Wagner
LSB Least Significant Bit
MAC Message Authentication Code
MD Message Digest
MD5 Message Digest 5
MD-MITM Multi Dimensional-Meet In The Middle
MEK Message Encryption Key
MITM Meet In The Middle
MITM Man In The Middle
MPDU MAC Protocol Data Unit
MSB Most Significant Bit
NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology
NOMORE Numerous Occurrence MOnitoring & Recovery Exploit
NPN Next Protocol Negotiation
OCB Offset CodeBook
OFB Output Feedback
OMAC One-key MAC
OTP One-Time Pad
PCBC Propagating Cipher Block Chaining
PGP Pretty Good Privacy
PIN Personal Identification Number
PKC Public Key Cryptography
PKCS Public Key Cryptography Standards
PKI Public Key Infrastructure
PKIX Public Key Infrastructure X.509
PMAC Parallelizable MAC
PPK PuTTY Private Key
PRG Pseudo-random generator
PRGA Pseudo-random generation algorithm
RC4 Rivest Cipher 4
RFC Request For Comments
RSA Rivest, Shamir, Adleman
SHA Secure Hash Algorithm
SIC Segmented Integer Counter
SISWG Security in Storage Working Group
SRTP Secure Real-time Transport Protocol
SSH Secure Shell
SSL Secure Socket Layer
SSPI Security Support Provider Interface
SV Starting Variable
TDEA Triple Data Encryption Algorithm
TEA Tiny Encryption Algorithm
TEK Traffic Encryption Key
TKIP Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
TLS Transport Layer Security
TSK Transmission Security Key
VMPC Variably Modified Permutation Composition
WEP Wired Equivalent Privacy
WPA Wi-Fi Protected Access
WPA2 Wi-Fi Protected Access II
WPS Wi-Fi Protected Setup
XEX Xor-Encrypt-Xor
XOR Exclusive OR
XTS XEX Tweakable Block Cipher with Ciphertext Stealing

Download “list-of-cryptography-terms.csv” list-of-cryptography-terms.csv – Downloaded 576 times – 3 KB

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Tech Acronyms / Abbreviations / Portmanteaus

Currently 386 terms

Last updated 11/15/15

Acronym / Abbreviation / Portmanteau Meaning
ACK Acknowledge
ACL Access Control List
ADC Analog to Digital Converter
ADC Apple Display Connector
ADF Automatic Document Feeder
ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
AF Autofocus
AGP Accelerated Graphics Port
AIFF Audio Interchange File Format
AIX Advanced Interactive Executive
ALU Arithmetic Logic Unit
ANSI American National Standards Institute
API Application Program Interface
APU Accelerated Processing Unit
ARP Address Resolution Protocol
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASF Advanced Systems Format
ASIC Application Specific Integrated Circuit
ASLR Address Space Layout Randomization
ASP Active Server Page or Application Service Provider
ATA Advanced Technology Attachment
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
ATX Advanced Technology eXtended
AUP Acceptable Use Policy
Bash Bourne Again SHell
BASIC Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
Bcc Blind Carbon Copy
BIOS Basic Input/Output System
Blob Binary Large Object
BMP Bitmap
BSOD Blue Screen of Death
​CA Certificate Authority
CAD Computer-Aided Design
Cc Carbon Copy
CCD Charged Coupled Device
CD Compact Disc
CDFS Compact Disc File System
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CDN Content Delivery Network
CDP Cisco Discovery Protocol
CD-R Compact Disc Recordable
CD-ROM Compact Disc Read-Only Memory
CD-RW Compact Disc Re-Writable
CGI Common Gateway Interface
CIF Common Intermediate Format
CISC Complex Instruction Set Computing
CLOB Character Large Object
CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
CMS Content Management System
CMYK Cyan Magenta Yellow Black
Codec coder-decoder or less commonly compressor-decompressor
CPA Cost Per Action
CPC Cost Per Click
CPL Cost Per Lead
CPM Cost Per 1,000 Impressions
CPS Classroom Performance System
CPU Central Processing Unit
CRM Customer Relationship Management
CRT Cathode Ray Tube
CSS Cascading Style Sheet
CTP Composite Theoretical Performance
CTR Click-Through Rate
DAC Digital-to-Analog Converter
DAQ Data Acquisition
DAW Digital Audio Workstation
DBMS Database Management System
DCIM Digital Camera IMages
DDL Data Definition Language
DDoS Dedicated Denial of Service
DDR Double Data Rate
DDR2 Double Data Rate 2
DDR3 Double Data Rate Type 3
DEST Destination
DFS Distributed File System
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DIMM Dual In-Line Memory Module
DLC Downloadable Content
DLL Dynamic Link Library
DMA Direct Memory Access
DNS Domain Name System
DoS Denial of Service
DOS Disk Operating System
DPI Dots Per Inch
DRAM Dynamic Random Access Memory
DRM Digital Rights Management
DSL Digital Subscriber Line
DSLAM Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer
DSLR Digital SLR
DTD Document Type Definition
DTO Data Offset
DV Digital Video
DVD Digital Versatile Disc
DVD+R DVD Recordable
DVD+RW DVD Rewritable
DVD-R DVD Recordable
DVD-RAM DVD Random Access Memory
DVD-RW DVD Rewritable
DVI Digital Video Interface
DVR Digital Video Recorder
ECC Error Correction Code
EDI Electronic Data Interchange
EEPoE Energy Efficient PoE
EIA Electronic Industries Alliance
EIDE Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics
EPS Encapsulated PostScript
eSATA External SATA
EUP Enterprise Unified Process
EXIF Exchangeable Image File Format
FAQ Frequently Asked Questions
FCS Frame Check Sequence
FDDI Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FIFO First In, First Out
FILO First In, Last Out
FIN Finished
FiOS Fiber Optic Service
FLG Flag
FLOPS Floating Point Operations Per Second
FLP Fast Link Pulse
FPS Frames Per Second
FPU Floating Point Unit
FQDN Fully Qualified Domain Name
FSB Frontside Bus
FTP File Transfer Protocol
Gbps Gigabits Per Second
GIF Graphics Interchange Format
GIGO Garbage In, Garbage Out
GIS Geographic Information Systems
GOV Group of Video
GPIO General Purpose Input/Output
GPS Global Positioning System
GPU Graphics Processing Unit
GUI Graphical User Interface
GUID Globally Unique Identifier
HD High Definition
HDD Hard Disk Drive
HDMI High-Definition Multimedia Interface
HDTV High Definition Televsion
HDV High-Definition Video
HFS Hierarchical File System
HSF Heat Sink and Fan
HTML HyperText Markup Language
HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol
HTTPS HyperText Transport Protocol Secure
I/O Input/Output
ICANN Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers
ICF Internet Connection Firewall
ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol
ICS Internet Connection Sharing
ICT Information and Communication Technologies
IDE Integrated Device Electronics or Integrated Development Environment
IDS Intrusion Detection System
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
IGP Integrated Graphics Processor
IIS Internet Information Services
IM Instant Message
IMAP Internet Message Access Protocol
InterNIC Internet Network Information Center
IP Internet Protocol
IPS Intrusion Prevention System
IPX Internetwork Packet Exchange
IRC Internet Relay Chat
IRQ Interrupt Request
ISA Industry Standard Architecture
iSCSI Internet Small Computer Systems Interface
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ISP Internet Service Provider
IT Information Technology
IVR Interactive Voice Response
JFS Journaled File System
JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group
JPG JPEG Filename Extension
JRE Java Runtime Environment
JSF JavaServer Faces
JSON JavaScript Object Notation
JSP Java Server Page
Kbps Kilobits Per Second
KDE K Desktop Environment
KVM Switch Keyboard, Video, and Mouse Switch
LAMP Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP
LAN Local Area Network
LCD Liquid Crystal Display
LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
LED Light-Emitting Diode
LIFO Last In, First Out
LPI Lines Per Inch
LTE Long Term Evolution
LUN Logical Unit Number
MAC Address Media Access Control Address
MAMP Mac OS X, Apache, MySQL, and PHP
MANET Mobile Ad Hoc Network
Mbps Megabits Per Second
MBR Master Boot Record
MCA Micro Channel Architecture
MDI Medium Dependent Interface
MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface
MIME Multi-Purpose Internet Mail Extensions
MIPS Million Instructions Per Second
MIS Management Information System
MMS Multimedia Messaging Service
Modem modulator-demodulator
MOOC Massive Open Online Course
MP3 MPEG-1 Audio Layer-3
MPEG Moving Picture Experts Group
MTU Maximum Transmission Unit
NAT Network Address Translation
NetBIOS Network Basic Input/Output System
NIC Network Interface Card
NNTP Network News Transfer Protocol
NOC Network Operations Center
NSP Network Service Provider
NTFS New Technology File System
NTSC National Television System Committee
NUI Natural User Interface
NVRAM Non-Volatile Random Access Memory
OASIS Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards
OCR Optical Character Recognition
ODBC Open Database Connectivity
OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer
OLAP Online Analytical Processing
OLE Object Linking and Embedding
OLED Organic Light Emitting Diode
OOP Object-Oriented Programming
OPT Options
OSD On Screen Display
OSPF Open Shortest Path First
P2P Peer To Peer
PAL Phase Alternating Line
PC Personal Computer
PCB Printed Circuit Board
PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect
PCI-X Peripheral Component Interconnect Extended
PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
PD Powered Device
PDA Personal Digital Assistant
PDF Portable Document Format
PHP Hypertext Preprocessor
PII Personally Identifiable Information
PIM Personal Information Manager
PMU Power Management Unit
PNG Portable Network Graphic
PoE Power over Ethernet
PoE+ Power over Ethernet Plus
PON Passive Optical Network
POP3 Post Office Protocol
POST Power On Self Test
PPC Pay Per Click
PPGA Plastic Pin Grid Array
PPI Pixels Per Inch
PPL Pay Per Lead
PPM Pages Per Minute
PPP Point to Point Protocol
PPPoE Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet
PPS Pay Per Sale
PPTP Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
PRAM Parameter Random Access Memory
PROM Programmable Read-Only Memory
PS/2 Personal System/2
PSE Power Sourcing Equipment
PSH Push
PUM Potentially Unwanted Modification
PUP Potentially Unwanted Program
PyPI Python Package Index
QBE Query By Example
RAID Redundant Array of Independent Disks
RAM Random Access Memory
RCP Remote copy
RDF Resource Description Framework
RDRAM Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory
RF Radio Frequency
RFID Radio-Frequency Identification
RGB Red Green Blue
RIA Rich Internet Application
RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computing
RJ Registered Jack
ROM Read-Only Memory
RPC Remote Procedure Call
RPM Revenue Per 1,000 Impressions
RS Recommended Standard
RSS RDF Site Summary
RST Reset
RTE Runtime Environment
RTF Rich Text Format
RUP Rational Unified Process
Rx Receive
SaaS Software as a Service
SAN Storage Area Network
SATA Serial Advanced Technology Attachment
SCP Secure copy
SCSI Small Computer System Interface
SD Secure Digital
SDK Software Development Kit
SDLC System Development Lifecycle
SDRAM Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
SDSL Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line
SEO Search Engine Optimization
SEQ Sequence
SERP Search Engine Results Page
SFTP SSH FTP also Secure FTP
SIMD Single Instruction/Multiple Data
SIMM Single In-Line Memory Module
SIP Session Initiation Protocol
SKU Stock Keeping Unit
SLA Software License or Service Level Agreement
SLI Scalable Link Interface
SLR Single-lens reflex
SMART Self-Monitoring Analysis And Reporting Technology
SMB Server Message Block
SMM Social Media Marketing
SMS Short Message Service
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
SOA Service Oriented Architecture
SOAP Simple Object Access Protocol
SO-DIMM Small Outline Dual In-Line Memory Module
SQL Structured Query Language
SRAM Static Random Access Memory
SRC Source
sRGB Standard Red Green Blue
SSD Solid State Drive
SSH Secure Shell
SSID Service Set Identifier
SSL Secure Sockets Layer
SYN Synchronization
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TFT Thin-Film Transistor
TIA Telecommunications Industry Association
TIFF Tagged Image File Format
TLS Transport Layer Security
ToS Terms of Service
ToU Terms of Use
ToV Target of Verification
TTL Time To Live
TWAIN Toolkit Without An Informative Name
Tx Transmit
UAT User Acceptance Testing
UDDI Universal Description Discovery and Integration
UDP User Datagram Protocol
UGC User Generated Content
UML Unified Modeling Language
UNC Universal Naming Convention
UPnP Universal Plug and Play
UPOE Universal PoE
UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply
URI Uniform Resource Identifier
URL Uniform Resource Locator
URP Urgent Pointer
USB Universal Serial Bus
UTF Unicode Transformation Format
VCI Virtual Channel Identifier
VDSL Very High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line
VDU Visual Display Unit
VESA Video Electronics Standards Association
VFAT Virtual File Allocation Table
VGA Video Graphics Array
VLAN Virtual LAN
VLB VESA Local Bus
VLE Virtual Learning Environment
VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol
VPI Virtual Path Identifier
VPN Virtual Private Network
VR Vibration Reduction
VRAM Video Random Access Memory
VRML Virtual Reality Modeling Language
W3C World Wide Web Consortium
WAIS Wide Area Information Server
WAMP Windows, Apache, MySQL, and PHP
WAN Wide Area Network
WDDM Windows Display Driver Model
WEP Wired Equivalent Privacy
Wi-Fi Wireless Fidelity
WIMP Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointer
WIN Window
WINS Windows Internet Name Service
WPA Wi-Fi Protected Access
WWW World Wide Web
XHTML Extensible Hypertext Markup Language
XML Extensible Markup Language
XMP Extensible Metadata Platform
XSLT Extensible Style Sheet Language Transformation
XSS Cross-Site Scripting
Y2K Year 2000
ZFS Zettabyte File System
ZIF Zero Insertion Force

TCP Abbreviations and Acronyms

Transport Control Protocol (TCP) Abbreviations and Acronyms

ACK – Acknowledge
DEST – Destination
DTO – Data Offset
FCS – Frame Check Sequence
FIN – Finished
FLG – Flag
IP – Internet Protocol
OPT – Options
PSH – Push
RST – Reset
SEQ – Sequence
SRC – Source
SYN – Synchronization
URP – Urgent Pointer
WIN – Window

List of 50 US States in Excel

Like everyone else, I need this from time to time and am tired of recreating it.

The master spreadsheet has four columns:

  1. State name in all caps
  2. State name in title case
  3. State two-letter abbreviation
  4. State AP style abbreviations

For convenience, each column is also provided in its own .csv file.


All Data: 50_us_states_all_data.csv

50 US State Names (Title Case): 50_us_state_names.csv

50 US State Names (ALL CAPS): 50_us_state_names_caps.csv

50 US State two-letter abbreviations: 50_us_states_two_letter_abbreviations.csv

50 US State AP abbreviations: 50_us_states_ap_abbreviations.csv


(SHA1: ECAE34EA4B45940FFA8DBAF276108DB9F8C446AB)

(SHA1: 5227FC6B3D0A4D7BB9E902EF34C5BDD73A138CC7)

(SHA1: 30E7C3C17BA818129C2D3535F737F7907256F8AD)

(SHA1: 77ACABEC2C66453F4DC8E47052E0CAA28F0090B7)

50 US State AP abbreviations: 50_us_states_ap_abbreviations.csv
(SHA1: 18B6A4056994CF1C2A544DC533152651C8652A82)


This article expands on the work done in the link below by adding AP style abbreviations and separating into individual files:

Original file:
(Downloaded 8/18/14 SHA1: D1E3FB7BAE7CD427359D373B5F2C166ABA46BBE2)

Associated Press Style State Abbreviations Source:

Related Articles

Also check out for adding to Excel as custom lists:

h/t to JP