Category Archives: Uncategorized

World’s Longest Initialisms

In English, the longest published initialism (in the 1965 edition of Acronyms, Initialisms and Abbreviations Dictionary) is:

ADCOMSUBORDCOMPHIBSPAC is 22 characters and is a United States Navy term that stands for “Administrative Command, Amphibious Forces, Pacific Fleet Subordinate Command.”

In pop culture, the card-game Magic: The Gathering has a playing card called “Our Market Research Shows That Players Like Really Long Card Names So We Made this Card to Have the Absolute Longest Card Name Ever Elemental”, with text on it saying: “Just call it OMRSTPLRLCNSWMTCTHTALCNEE for short.”  The initialism is 25 characters long.

The world’s longest acronym, according to the Guinness Book of World Records is NIIOMTPLABOPARMBETZHELBETRABSBOMONIMONKONOTDTEKHSTROMONT (Нииомтплабопармбетжелбетрабсбомонимонконотдтехстромонт). The 56-letter acronym (54 in Cyrillic) is from the Concise Dictionary of Soviet Terminology and means “The laboratory for shuttering, reinforcement, concrete and ferroconcrete operations for composite-monolithic and monolithic constructions of the Department of the Technology of Building-assembly operations of the Scientific Research Institute of the Organization for building mechanization and technical aid of the Academy of Building and Architecture of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.”



Wikipedia: Acronym licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.

Website Harlem Shake Assets

Mirror of:

The above code and linked mp3 and css files are provided below:

All files (.zip)

Download “” – Downloaded 20 times – 466 KB

SHA512: dacc03f82a1ca3d64c78e014c4dcb6c4ed0329e5b68c2bd4d415827924fc9670456ccfaf80b3aa3bc4d854378a6349bc956635fb4c065711e76ecf87c8b3398f



Download “harlem-shake.mp3” harlem-shake.mp3 – Downloaded 12 times – 480 KB

SHA512: 2b74eb1fe4f6faf916c65660ed2568fefb1c30a37466518186999da797e3110eaaad36b6f01cd2388aa9e7e81a55267b1c65782a7418485c2c4ee28e2ffbcc5d


Download “harlem-shake-style.css” harlem-shake-style.css – Downloaded 13 times – 7 KB

SHA512: 0a357f143718f3a392bdfcd11dd83abde338444ea4d2ef9cd83dbb511d840d0c97f6b69e8cd8b613373b8cd6275539fdf507750512363923fc1e93d2e3c54af2


Download “harlem-shake.txt” harlem-shake.txt – Downloaded 12 times – 4 KB

SHA512: 5ba6c4d172d9e7d049264da59ba3a6c0f3feed16341e0cae79c5610adf745cc94f82f0fa3063d588b29a19ef322e14ae5b4d9fdbdf03449e1ddd4821ab6b3d7f

Updated Get Windows 10


Microsoft recommends upgrading to Windows 10

Upgrading to Windows 10 is free for a limited time

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  • Your files will be right where you left them
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Yes, fee! Full version of Windows 10, not a trial, 3GB+ download, internet access fees may apply.


Familiar and easy

Windows 10 is familiar and easy to use.  The Start menu is back and improved so you get quick access to your favorite things.  You’ll feel right at home in Windows 10.

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Windows 10 starts fast, resumes fast, and comes with more security than ever.  And it’s designed to work with the hardware and software you already use.

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Amazing new features

Windows 10 is packed with innovations like:

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Discover new favorites in the Windows Store, your one-stop shop for great free and paid apps, popular games, movies, TV shows and the latest music.

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About Windows 10

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2016: The Complete List of Social Bookmarking Sites

Below is a complete list of social bookmarking and social sharing sites for 2016.  Send any additions, updated, or subtractions.  Interested in last year’s list?  See Social Bookmarking Sites that still exist in 2015

Complete List

  • BibSonomy: BibSonomy is run by the Knowledge Data Engineering Group of the University of Kassel, Germany. Its specifically designed for researchers, in sharing bookmarks and bibliographies
  • BlogBookMark: Designed specifically for Blog hunters, claims to have the hottest news, gossip, and blog chatter from around the web. I highly sugggest that mainstream bloggers bookmark their entire sites here.
  • blurpalicious: Get Blurped! Not too different from other social bookmarks, but I love the tagline.
  • Bmaccess: Social bookmarking with thumbs :).
  • Bookmark-manager : Organizer for bookmarks, calendar, diary and knowledge.
  • Bookmax: You can store your bookmarks and links to your favorite sites online and access them from wherever you are : basic Social Bookmarking.
  • Buddymarks: The online personal, group and social bookmarks manager.
  • Citeulike: A free service to help academics to share, store, and organise the academic papers they are reading.
  • Cloudytags: A unique word analyzer connects to your page, gets all the words and suggest you the real tags your site is showing to the world.
  • Delicious: Keep, share, and discover the best of the Web using Delicious, the world’s leading social bookmarking service.
  • Diigo: Social bookmarking on steroids.
  • Personalize your start page. Share with colleagues, students, friends or the entire web.
  • Folkd: Folkd is a social web-service about pages, news, audios, videos and blogs.
  • Freelink: provides free pages of links that you can access anywhere at anytime.
  • Google: Allows users to save and create bookmarks in their Google toolbar that can be accessed anywhere online. Google is getting more social by the day, so take advantage of their Google bookmarks and citations, because one day they probably will have some kind of influence on external meta data considered by the Google ranking algorithm.
  • Ikeepbookmarks: Popup feature allows you to add links while surfing the web
  • Iloggo: Simple web-based bookmarking tool that you can use for attractively displaying your favorite websites on one page.
  • Kinja: Kinja is a blog guide, collecting news and commentary from some of the best sites on the web.
  • Lilsto: Lilisto lets you store, manage and find your favorite links (or bookmarks) and removes the need to maintain them through your browser.
  • Linkagogo: Favorites and Social Bookmarking Application, its unique dynamic toolbars automatically adapt themselves.
  • Linkarena: German Social Bookmarking site.
  • Memotoo: Lets users centralize and share your personal data.
  • Murl: My URLs is a free online bookmarks manager, think of it as a bookmarks community.
  • MyBookmarks: MyBookmarks – access your bookmarks anytime, anywhere. Free productivity tool for business, student or personal use. Another popular bookmarking site.
  • Myhq: Store your bookmarks in one central location. Fast, text-based, banner free!
  • mySiteVote: mySiteVote is a community where you can vote your favorite site/s and view how popular a site is.
  • Reddit: “The frontpage of the internet” – Timely and shocking news oriented, Reddit stories are instantly voted upon and if liked by the community as a whole, can drive incredible traffic and users.
  • Refind: Refind is a community of founders, hackers, and designers who collect and share the best links on the web.
  • Sitebar: A solution for people who use multiple browsers or computers and want to have their bookmarks available from anywhere without need to synchronize them
  • Sitejot: Free online bookmark manager. Like every other social bookmarking site, it allows users to manage all of their bookmarks online in one convenient place.
  • Slashdot : The godfather of social news, SlashDot bookmarks are still quite powerful .. keep in mind the site has a heavy slant towards Linux and Open Source issues.
  • Startaid: I’ve noticed that StartAid bookmark pages rank highly in Google and other search engines. This basic bookmarking service allows users to describe, tag and categorize sites.
  • StumbleUpon: Free web-browser extension which acts as an intelligent browsing tool for discovering and sharing web sites.  Must register or login with Facebook.
  • Stylehive: The Stylehive is a collection of all the best products, brands, designers and stores discovered and tagged by the Hive community
  • Wirefan: Social bookmarking, news articles submission site.


ClipClip – It has a launch registration page complete with a “Prepare to be amazed!” tagline.  The countdown states it  will launch around Tuesday, March 15, 2016

Top Social Link Sharing Sites

  1. Reddit
  2. StubleUpon
  3. Hacker News
  4. Openfaves
  5. Delicious
  6. Slashdot

Top Social Sharing Sites

  1. Twitter
  2. Pinterest
  3. LinkedIn

Archive: Data Removal and Erasure from Hard Disk Drives

Data Removal and Erasure from Hard Disk Drives

copyright (c) 1992 -1998
Nicholas Majors & ActionFront Data Recovery Labs Inc.

“Is there a method of erasing existing data or files from a disk drive – that is secure enough to make it impossible for anyone to recover previously stored information from the device?”

Methods commonly used to remove files from a hard disk drive include:

  • Delete Commands or Emptying the Recycle Bin
  • Re-Formatting or Re-Initializing the drive
  • Degaussing of the Media
  • Physical Destruction or Physically Damaging the Media
  • Overwriting of the Data

Delete Command

Deleting files is the quickest and most convenient method of “erasing” data. All operating systems have some form of DELETE/ ERASE/ REMOVE command. Most of these commands never even touch the actual data that is recorded on the disk drive. They merely remove the index entry and pointers to the data file so that it appears the file is no longer there, and the space allocated to that file is made available for future write commands.

This is a very insecure practice and offers protection only against a computer neophyte. Commonly available utilities allow any knowledgeable technician to move beyond the operating system’s file indexing scheme and examine or rebuild previously deleted information.

There are available some advanced DELETE programs that go out of their way to actually overwrite the sectors used by a file to store data. These are an improvement, but still pose a security threat.

There are usually bits and pieces of data not associated or indexed with the actual file that can be missed. For example, most application programs (and many operating systems) will open temporary or swap/cache files while working on the data from a file. When the program is closed or exited, the application “deletes” these temp files. So even if the original file has been overwritten, multiple copies of the raw data may still exist in various unused parts of the disk drive.

Re-Formatting or Re-Initializing

The word FORMAT has come to describe several different processes in the set-up and initialization of a hard disk drive. There are physical or low level formats, operating system formats, quick formats, partitioning formats, etc…

Depending on the technology of the disk drive and the format utility that is used, each of these may perform a different function. In many cases, previously written data is unaffected. The format merely creates a new blank indexing scheme for the operating system, making all the sectors available for the writing of new files. Thus, making it appear that there are no files on the drive.

Unless you are fully aware of the exact reaction of each particular disk drive’s interface to a format command and are fully aware of the operations performed by the format utility, this method is also very insecure.

Degaussing of the Media

Degaussing is the use of an external de-magnetizer designed to reduce any magnetic flux recorded on the media. It is accomplished by producing alternating currents to create an Electro magnetic field that will reverse magnetize all fields on the surface.

Degaussing is an acceptable and effective method – however, it is far more appropriate for tape, diskettes, or removable media than it is for fixed hard disk drives.

Hard disk drive platters are mounted within a housing that in itself provide some amount of shielding to prevent a degaussing process from being effective. In our shop, we have exposed fully intact hard disk drives to very high levels of magnetic fields and have seen much or most of the data still intact on the device. The strength of any degaussing unit required to penetrate the Head Disk Assembly (H.D.A.) housing would probably cause considerable damage to any other diskette or magnetic media within several yards, perhaps even in the next room.

For conventional degaussing to be successful with a hard disk, you would have to disassemble the drive and remove the platters. Once physically removed, it’s questionable whether the degaussing process would be required.

Also, most of today’s hard disk drives rely on magnetically recorded servo-patterns to allow control and movement of the read/write head assembly and the rotation speed of the platters. Any degaussing powerful enough to remove the data would most certainly destroy the servo, effectively rendering the drive non-functional.

Physical Destruction or Physically Damaging the Media

Physically disassembling a disk drive and “randomly” removing the platters from the spindle is a highly effective form of protection. Despite claims to the contrary, technology does not exist to remove the platters (without extensive control measures) from one device and read them back with another machine.

At the time of manufacture, control signals (servo information) are written to every drive after is has been assembled. Any attempt to recreate or read back these signals once the exact alignment and relative positioning of the platters and the head stack have been altered is virtually impossible.

Commercial data recovery companies (including ourselves) have invested heavily into research to overcome some of these problems. At Data Recovery Labs, we have been successful in many forms of platter transplants – but in every case – the removal of the disks must be done with exacting measurements to maintain the positioning in relation to the spindle that they are mounted on. If the platters are removed – without strict engineering methodologies – the surfaces are useless for data recovery purposes.

Industry sales reps routinely boast of removing platters and reading them in another drive and often allude to mysterious capabilities, but when specifically questioned on their success with physically removed platters they claim that each case is different and must be handled on a one by one basis. If pressed for examples of successful platter removal and recovery, they will usually claim it’s a matter of not wanting to violate company confidentiality or reveal trade secrets.

Of course, once a platter has been physically removed, there is no reason not to have them simply scored with a single line to scrape the magnetic coating right off the platter. This would eliminate the one in a million miracle chance that alignment in a new assembly is the exact same as the original.

Overwriting of the Data

Overwriting of the data means replacing previously stored data on a drive or disk with a predetermined pattern of meaningless information. This is an accepted and effective means of rendering data unrecoverable but the process must be correctly understood and carefully implemented.

If data is “successfully” overwritten, even a single time, it can be considered as unrecoverable for all practical purposes.

Data is recorded onto magnetic media by writing a pattern of fluxes (or pole changes) that represent binary ones (1) and zeros (0). These patterns can then be read back and interpreted as individual bits, 8 of which are used to represent a byte or character. For example, the letter “A” is written in a binary pattern as “01000001”, the letter “B” is “01000010”, the letter “C” as “01000011”, etc… If the data is overwritten with a random pattern (let’s say “11111111” followed by “00000000”) the magnetic fluxes have been physically changed and the drives read/write heads will only detect the new pattern and for all intents the data has been effectively “erased”.


Good Question!

During the past few years I have been questioned on numerous occasions (by technicians from Revenue Canada, the R.C.M.P., the Department of National Defense and several Universities) about the availability of technologies to read trace magnetic signals that have been overwritten. It is commonly quoted that data can be recovered if it has been only overwritten once or twice and that it actually takes up to ten overwrites to securely protect previous data.

If a head positioning system is not exact enough, new data written to a drive may indeed not be written back to the precise location of the original data. Due to this track misalignment, it is possible to identify traces of data from earlier magnetic patterns alongside the current track. (At least that was the case with high capacity floppy diskette drives, which have a rudimentary position mechanism. Due to the embedded positioning systems and extreme high densities of new drive technologies, it has yet to be proven if the same can be said for the latest high speed, high capacity disk drives.)

It has been suggested that an electron microscope could be used to read and interpret any patterns that were not fully overwritten by the process. Theoretically this can be done – but in practice it is little more than a myth.

Electron microscopes have been used to detect and identify magnetic regions smaller than the fluxes used to represent data on a 200 megabyte disk drive. Unfortunately, at best, this type of process could be accomplished at a rate of perhaps 1 bit per second. Furthermore, since virtually every drive in production today records two or more magnetic fluxes (due to R.L.L. recording) to represent each bit the actual rate could be considerably slower.

The number of bits in a single 512 byte (character) sector is 4096 and there are over 200,000 sectors on a one hundred megabyte hard drive. This represents almost 820 million bits to be read back.

If data could be recovered at the rate of 1 bit per second – this process would take 9,259 days (or over 25 years) to recover 100 MB of information. This is assuming that you could read back and interpret each bit correctly, for example on data that has never been overwritten. If you are trying to read “traces” of data that were previously written there, in the most likely scenario you may be able to correctly recover, interpret and identify 30-40 percent of the signals.


A “10101011” pattern may come back as “?010?01?” and every single character on the drive would be scrambled in a similar manner. The mathematical probability of decrypting such a puzzle into usable data is infinitesimal.

It could be claimed that data can be recovered from any drive in the world with a guaranteed success rate of 50% “at the bit level”. This sounds interesting until you consider that if you overwrote the entire surface of the drive with either all “0” or all “1” and since the original drive contained nothing but patterns of binary ones and zeros – half the bits would be correct – but obviously no data could be recovered.

In conclusion, overwritten data cannot be read back or recovered by any current disk drive technology or laboratory technique.

Problems with Overwriting Data

Even if successfully overwritten data is not recoverable in the real world, there are still a number of complicating factors that may prevent successful erasure of the information:

  • Identifying and using the correct physical parameters of a drive to ensure that every sector on the surface is in fact overwritten.
  • Dealing with write errors on the surface. If for some reason the write command is rejected, any previous data in that sector or track is still available and accessible by low level techniques.
  • Selection of appropriate software that will work at a hardware level, independent of the operating system and overwrite data on the entire surface, not just for a single partition.

Notwithstanding any of these concerns, the process of overwriting data, if correctly implemented, is by far the most secure and economical method of erasing data from a hard disk drive.


The preceding article is copyright (c) 1992 -1998 Nicholas Majors & ActionFront Data Recovery Labs Inc. and is no longer available at the original location Mirrored from:

List of Common SI Prefixes

Prefix Name Prefix Symbol 10ⁿ English Word
peta P 10¹⁵ quadrillion
tera T 10¹² trillion
giga G 10⁹ billion
mega M 10⁶ million
kilo k 10³ thousand
hecto h 10² hundred
deca da 10¹ ten
1 one
deci d 10⁻¹ tenth
centi c 10⁻² hundredth
milli m 10⁻³ thousandth
micro μ 10⁻⁶ millionth
nano n 10⁻⁹ billionth
pico p 10⁻¹² trillionth
femto f 10⁻¹⁵ quadrillionth

Download “list-of-common-si-prefixes.csv” list-of-common-si-prefixes-1.csv – Downloaded 99 times – 500 B